Essay的寫作相對Report要簡單一些。通常只包括三個部分，緒論（Introduction）,主體（Main Body），結論（Conclusion）。緒論（Introduction）包括選題（topic）的背景介紹和文章要解決的主要問題，通常占總字數的10%左右。主體（Main Body）占總字數80%左右。如果題目中作了具體要求，就根據題目提到的幾個方面來逐一討論就可以了。有的題目沒有作具體要求，就根據自己的構思來寫。但要求有邏輯性。結論（Conclusion）也是占10%，在這一段里把文章中的主要觀點用一到兩句話概括出來。Essay 可以不寫題目，不要把小標題加粗。Reference的寫作是兩種形式都要涉及的，我放在最后來詳細說。而英國ESSAY 采用的是世界通用的哈佛格式， 當然這個格式中國不同的，寫這樣的essay，必須借助到數據庫， 國內論文什么樣子，估計大家都知道，很多中國本科去英國讀碩士都遇到不會寫論文的事情。
A Summary of “Double Exposure: Assessing the Impacts of Climate Change within the Context of Economic Globalization”
The article postulates a synergism between economic globalization and climate change. O’Brien (2000) says，since the Industrial Revolution, the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere has been doubled. In the past century, the global mean surface temperature has increased by 0.3 - 0.6 ℃, and the sea level has risen from 10 cm to 25 cm. The author believes that this change is due to artificially sustained composition of the atmosphere and other human activities. The author also mentions a concept of double exposure. As O’Brien (2000) says, double exposure as the cases in which some particular regions, departments, or ecosystems is confronted by the influences of climate change and economic globalization.
The author’s main conclusions include the following four aspects: first, he considers that there is not only a causal relationship between climate change and economic globalization, the relationship should be synergism. The author uses the following examples to explain the synergism: changes in the global warming will cause the changes in precipitation and dry climate conditions in different areas, which leads to changes in the economic structure of countries all over the world; since the Industrial Revolution, with the rapid growth of the world population, water consumption has increased quickly; what is more, water pollution also has become very serious. Anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases, such as carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide in the atmosphere have increased continuously, which will change the earth's atmospheric composition. Second, he reports that the synergism of climate change and economic globalization has complex impacts. The impacts they produce may cancel each other, or be superimposed on each other, resulting in the appearance of double winners and losers in both environmental and economic aspects. Third, in judging whether there are winners or losers, he thinks that it should not evaluate only from a certain aspect, but from economic, social and environmental aspects to evaluate and analyze. Finally, the author concludes that as economic globalization and climate change appear simultaneously, a policy may be able to address the negative impact of a certain aspect, but it may bring negative effects of another aspect. Thus we should be from an overall and long-term perspective to make policies to achieve better results. Although the author fails to explicitly put forward a concrete solution on global climate change, the author shows another novel idea: the environmental issue is not a single problem for every country. To solve the problem involves both political and economic aspects of a country. Facing the increasingly serious environmental problems, each country should balance the relationship among economic, social and environmental aspects.
O’Brien K. (2000). Double exposure: Assessing the impacts of climate change within the context of economic globalization. Retrieved from Google Scholar Database.